TC23: Education

The main focus of our activities is the organization and support of workshops, among which are the Montpellier Research Student Workshops held in July each year, and the workshops that make up the “Clear as Glass” series, held during the DDG annual conferences in Germany. An International Training Team is also available and recently has organised focussed training events in South America. Additionally, plans include the updating of the ICG Book List, a compilation of available courses on glass and input into the Wikipedia pages on Glasses.

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Activities and plans

Educational Outreach of ICG

An international core team was appointed to follow up the outreach initiative under TC23 chairmanship. The core team members are:

  • Chao Liu (PR China),
  • Bernard Hehlen (France),
  • Mathieu Hubert (The Netherlands, now at U.S.A.),
  • Ana Candida Rodriguez (Brazil),
  • Himanshu Jain (U.S.A.),
  • Takumi Fujiwara (Japan)

Delia Brauer (Germany) has expressed keen interest to join the initiative.

So far, the envisaged activities comprises the support and continuation of ICG schools, and the establishment of internet courses on glass.

Some recommendations for the organization of successful ICG schools were proposed:

  • A successful school should address, beside an annual focus on selected special topics, four core topics. It is felt that the new generation of glass scientists needs a solid foundation in:
  • fundamentals of the glassy state,
  • structure of glass,
  • thermodynamics of glass,
  • transport properties, comprising both materials science (diffusion, electric con­duction, and crystallization) and engineering (heat and mass transfer).
  • Instructors should not offer “conference type” talks illustrating their latest scientific achievements. Rather, the lectures should provide good summaries of what students need to know.
  • If possible, should be kept in the geographical area where they started.
  • Students activities (projects) and student-teacher interaction are major ingredients of a successful school.
  • Planting new schools in new geographical areas is not a focus of the outreach. Such initiatives shall, however, be supported by providing advice. A need is felt to define rules under which conditions a school may run under the ICG label.

The preparation of online courses on glass is seen as a suitable format to pursue. Different formats (MOOC = massive open online courses and SPOC = small private online courses) are being tried. Such courses typically cover 1 hour per topic, including a short video, ppt slides, plus an additional 40 min for exercises after the course. One of the four above core topics shall be depicted as a test balloon; a draft MOOC shall be prepared by the next TC meeting.

Established ICG schools, past – presence – future

  1. 2016

The 8th Montpellier offered two topical threads presented in parallel courses, with some fundamental courses common for both. The first thread (running under the headline GLASS FORMATION, STRUCTURE, AND PROPERTIES) addressed fundamentals in glass science emphasizing structure-to-property relationships as well as experimental techniques and numerical simulation. Specific properties, their structural dependence, and applications were discussed, such as: optical behavior, viscosity, aging, transport phenomena, nucleation and crystallization. In the second thread (running under the headline GLASS TECHNOLOGY - PRIMARY INDUSTRIAL GLASS FABRICATION) lectures were devoted to primary industrial glass fabrication. The first part consisted of six lectures presenting an overview by sketching the process path from the raw materials to the workable melt. Recent progress related to reaction kinetics, melt chemistry, energy and emission issues, and process control were addressed. In the second part, special attention was given to the product segments of container and float glass, addressing for each segment the typical problems encountered in industrial practice, and highlighting some future challenges. Eight students teams competed in working on specifically appointed research projects – which was, as always, a highly appreciated part of the school.

  1. 2017

The programme of the 2017 school has been announced (see flyer at the end of this report). Again, two topical threads shall be presented in parallel courses. The 2017 topic complementing the thread of basic glass science is devoted to numerical simulation of both glass structure and processing.

  1. 2018

The Montpellier Summer School 2018 will be the 10th event in a row. For this very special occasion, the core team plans to edit an ICG lecture script comprising the main topics covered during the past years.


The 2nd Winter School in China, 31st March – 5th April 2016

This school continued the successful start of the first Winter school held in Dec. 2014 in Shenzhen. It took place 31st March- 5th April 2016 at Wuhan University, just before the ICG Congress in Shanghai (2016).

The programme comprised the following topics:

  (1)      Glass colour and redox chemistry. Optical absorption and colour coordinates. Very transparent glasses for PV, telecommunications.

  (2)      Ion exchange. Diffusion profiles, particles growth. Mec2hanical and optical properties.

  (3)      Chemical durability: Measurement and standards. Physical chemistry and mechanisms of corrosion. Effect of composition.

  (4)      Calculating phase equilibrium and chemical activities in melts with exercises.

  (5)      Vibrations in glasses (I): Basics of IR absorption, Brillouin and Raman scattering.

  (6)      Vibrations in glasses (II): Vibrations and glass properties.

  (7)      Atomistic simulations of structure. Reliability, limitations, problem solving.

  (8)      Atomistic simulations and glass properties.

  (9)      Neutron, X-ray and light diffraction. Results for various oxide and non-oxide glasses.

(10)      Thin film deposition technologies PVD, CVD, sol-gel, etc.

(11)      NMR for studying structures of various glasses.

(12)      Mechanical properties of glasses

(13)      Liquid-liquid phase separation. Nucleation and crystallization. Nano-crystallization. Particle coarsening.

(14)      Glass-ceramics: their manufacture and properties. Some key examples of applications.

Topics no. 1 to 10 were covered by lecturers from the Montpellier Summer School core team, while lectures no. 11 to 18 were presented by Chinese colleagues from different academic affiliations.

A total of 34 students participated in the event, among which 32 were from different locations in China, 1 from Japan, 1 from India, and 1 from Sudan. (see the picture above)

The 3rd Winter School in China

The event is scheduled for 11th – 15th November 2017, likely to be held again in Wuhan. The decision on the city and venue is still pending.

Students tutorial at ESG &  SGT 100th anniversary conference, Sheffield, Sept. 2016

A ½ days tutorial comprising (I) energy calculations from batch to melt, (II) use of phase diagrams and thermodynamic fundamentals in the description of industrial glasses, (III) assessment and modeling of melt viscosity, was held at SGT Sept. 2016, Sheffield (instructor R. Conradt). Approx. 20 students and young professionals participated.

ICG Students Tutorial at ICAGST, 19th – 21st January 2017 in Kolkata, India

At the CTC meeting of ICG in Shanghai, April 2016, it was decided to prepare a students tutorial taking place prior to the ICAGST conference 2017 in Kolkata, India. An overview over the programme and the tutors is given below.

January 19, 2017


Glass formation and glass forming systems

Prof. Alicia Duran, Spain

Structure of glass

Prof. Alicia Duran, Spain

Thermodynamics and energy demands for batch-to-melt conversion

Prof. Reinhard Conradt, Germany

Students describe their own research activities

all participants

Vibrations: Basics of IR absorption an Raman

Dr. K. Annapurna, India 

Atomistic simulations and glass properties, structure, reliability

Prof. Akira Takada, Japan

Students project allocation

all participants

Nucleation, growth and crystallization of glasses

Dr. Maria Jesus Pascual, Spain

Quantum transformation (An inspirational talk by a professional trainer)

Ms. SubbarwalPreeti, India

January 20, 2017


Containerless melting of glasses

Prof. Hiroyuki Inoue, Japan

Glass-ceramics: Their manufacture and properties

Dr. Maria Jesus Pascual, Spain

Glass colour and redox chemistry

Prof. John Parker,UK 

Chemical durability of glasses

Prof. Reinhard Conradt, Germany 

Ionic Diffusion in glass

Prof. John Parker, UK

Electrical properties of glasses

Prof. A. C. M. Rodrigues, Brazil

Bioactive Glasses and Glass-Ceramics

Prof.. Delia S. Brauer, Germany

Project Work by students

all participants


January 21, 2017


Glasses for energy and environment

Prof. X Zhao, China

Architectural glass performance and testing

Mr. Gohul Deepak, India

Heat transfer in glass melts

Dr. Manoj Chaudhury, U.S.A.

Ionic and electronic conductivity in glasses

Prof. Aswini Ghosh, India

Characterisation of glasses through electron paramagnetic resonance technique

Prof. J. Lakshmana Rao, India


Winning group for Summer School project work 

Other plans and activities

In 2012, the German Museum in Munich presented as series of books on glass science and technology (Vol. 1: “Glass: The Material”, Vol. 2: “Glass Hollowware”, Vol. 3: “Flat Glass”, Vol. 4: “Speciality Glass”). This series covers the basics of glass science and technology at the level of an undergraduate introductory course. The texts are presented in German and English in parallel columns. The opportunity shall be explored whether or not the editors are interested in expanding their series – with the assistance of ICG – to editions presenting the texts in English plus another ICG language (similar to the ICG Dictionary). This may result in a win-win situation for both the museum and ICG. Due to a reorganization of personnel at the German Museum, new contacts have to be built; the issue is still pending.

A sum of 5700 Euros was made available for student funding for ICG related events.

Four students received funds to enable their participation at the SGT conference in September 2016 in Sheffield, UK. The total amount spent was 1850 EURO.

The remaining 3850 EURO shall be devoted to supporting students to participate in the 9th Montpellier Summer School 2017, and to invite the winning student team to the next ICG meeting in Istanbul in 2017. The remainder of the 3850 Euros, if any, will be reserved for funding further students visiting Istanbul.

TC23 Membership Status

During the TC23 meeting in Shanghai, April 2016, a number of changes regarding the membership of TC23 were proposed and implemented – as indicated by the footnotes of the above membership list:

  • Ales Helebrant indicated to the chairman of TC23 that he prefers not to act as secretary of the TC anymore. R. Conradt proposed that Ana Candida Rodrigues was unanimously accepted by all the TC members to take the role of secretary of the TC23. A. Helebrant will remain member of TC23.
  • Hiroyuki Inoue became the new chair of the CTC. As this function makes difficult his active participation in TCs, he will no longer be TC23 member. Takumia Fujiwara from Tokohu University was proposed to take over his position in TC23. His membership will become official after the Japanese national organization gives its approval to ICG.
  • The same situation applies to Alicia Duran, now vice-president of the ICG. A. Duran will propose another person from Spain as TC23 member.
  • Rene Vacher’s term as CTC chair terminated. He is willing and pleased to act as consultant in TC23.
  • Finland is interested in participating to the TC23. Leena Hupa and Jorma Viktala were both present in the last TC23 meeting. A final proposition from Finland is still pending.
  • For China, C. Liu will be the only member representing China in TC23 when X. Zhao retires; this will become effective after the Chinese glass association confirms his candidacy.
  • The chairmanship of R. Conradt for TC23 arrives to an end, after 3 terms of 3 years. R. Conradt volunteered to remain as acting chair for the coming 1-1.5 year, period during which he will be looking for a new chairman.

Committee Members: back to top

Bange, Klaus (Dr) Committee Position: Emeritus
Clare, Alexis (Prof)
Conradt, Reinhard Committee Position: Chair
Flygt, Elisabeth
Fujiwara, Takumia Committee Position: Core Group
Gonçalves, Clara Committee Position: Secretary
Hand, Russell
Hehlen, Bernard
Hotar, V
Hubert, Mathieu Committee Position: Core Group
Hupa, Leena
Liska, Marek
Liu, Chao
Parker, John (Prof) Committee Position: Core Group
Richardson, Kathleen Committee Position: Emeritus
Rodrigues, Ana Candida Committee Position: Secretary
Ubale, Seema
Vacher, Rene Committee Position: Emeritus
Vitkala, Jorma

Committee Contact Details: back to top

TC23: Education
Prof Reinhard Conradt
RWTH Aachen

Email TC23: Education Using The Form Below.


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