TC09: Energy Efficiency

The objectives of this new TC are:

To identify the major process steps, with potential for energy efficiency improvement e.g. glass melting, glass conditioning, raw material supply & recycling, post-processing of glass;
To select technologies with potential for efficiency improvement;
To test or develop tools to that support energy efficiency investigations (e.g. energy balance models for glass furnaces, protocols for energy management, energy audit procedures dedicated to glass production plants, LCA modeling).
To define research activities for developing energy saving glass production methods.
To organise symposia or sessions on energy efficiency in glass production at ICG annual meetings and congresses;
To share energy consumption and CO2 emission data (anonymous) for benchmarking purposes;
To share LCA data;
And to share practical experiences and problems related to new energy saving technologies (e.g. use of batch preheating, flue gas heat recovery systems, energy efficient furnace designs, recycling etc.).

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Activities and planned actions


As a result of the very comprehensive ICG roadmap activities, the ICG has launched a  Technical Committee addressing the need to focus on energy efficient glass production in order to decrease greenhouse gas emissions and primary energy consumption in industrial glass production. Its name is TC09: Energy Efficiency in Glass Production. The aim is to bring experts together to discuss the energy saving potential and energy saving technologies available for all steps in the process of industrial manufacturing (from raw materials to glass product) and for all glass sectors.

TC09 has been active since November 2013.

The main direction of this TC is to define activities and studies of a technical and scientific nature. The most important suggestions proposed include:

-     Investigations of new technologies applicable for energy efficiency improvement in glass production;

-     Sharing experiences with application of new energy saving technologies or energy recovery from waste heat;

-     Development of tools and models to investigate energy balances of glass furnaces & forehearths or other thermal processes in glass industries;

-     Collection of data on energy consumption in glass industries per country and per process step or furnace (benchmarking);

-     Organize symposia or sessions on Energy Efficiency or Energy Saving Technologies at conferences;

-     Preparing guidelines to standardize methods of analysing energy efficiency of glass production and setting definitions for units of energy consumption, specific energy consumption and defining reference states.

TC09 will address all process steps, but the first priority will be glass melting, since this contributes on average about 60-65 % to the total energy consumption in glass production.

TC09 will become part of the Glass Production TC cluster of the ICG and will work alongside: TC11, TC13, TC14, TC18, TC15/21, and TC23. TC09 is chaired by Dr. Ing. Hans van Limpt from CelSian Glass & Solar. Soon a vice-chair, secretary and webmaster will be nominated and proposed. TC09 aims to set up a website and wants to cooperate with other TCs within the cluster especially TC13 (Environment) and TC18 (Glass Melting).

The most important aim for 2017 is to continue to define a uniform approach to define energy efficiency or specific energy use within or across the various glass industry sectors. With financial support of ICG, TC09 started a project to realize this goal.  The existing non-uniformity is compounded by the fact that there is no common approach in the consideration of factors such as the effect of cullet, the efficiency of electric boosting, age, furnace design etc.. Furthermore reported energy data in literature do not clearly explain the validity of the reported data.  In first instance TC09 is focussing on glass melting furnaces, the largest energy consumers of a glass factory.


TC09 will develop recommended Best Practices for defining energy use and efficiency so that companies within each glass sector can make useful comparisons.  This approach will be used to explain some of the differences in performance between sectors and aid discussions with non-technical and/or external agencies.

The results of this project will be used to explain the energy balances of glass furnaces and to evaluate the methodology of applied energy balance models, measuring techniques and benchmark data.  The first step in this study is an energy benchmark study for 6 to 8 float glass furnaces. In this study glass furnace energy consumption of individual glass furnaces will be benchmarked against a database of energy consumption of (anonymous) glass furnaces.

TC9 Started a round robin comparison of calculating the Thermodynamic Energy Requirement for glass melting for some selected glasses.

Besides this study on the definition of energy efficiency, TC09 exchanged information on running projects and new initiatives to reduce energy consumption in the glass production process. Many companies apply energy benchmark studies as a starting point of energy reduction programs. To reduce the CO2 footprint and energy consumption some companies switched from air-fuel to oxy-fuel, while others increased the fraction of electric boosting. New initiatives in the glass industry are for example the application of Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC), Hot-Ox systems to preheat fuel and oxygen, the application of the ‘Optimelt’ TCR system and the use of smart batches which melt more easily.


1. TC09 Meetings

In 2017 three TC09 meetings were organized.

The first was a SKYPE conference call on 17 May 2017.

The 2nd  was a SKYPE call on 31 August 2017.

The 3rd meeting was held at ICG Conference in Istanbul, Turkey on 20 December 2017.

The meetings were attended by about 10 to 20  (guest-) members.

2. Energy benchmark project

As explained in the summary an energy benchmark project has been done for 6 float furnace with the aim to define a uniform approach to define energy efficiency or specific energy use within or across the various glass industry sectors. A draft publication is in progress.

3. Calculation of minimum thermodynamic batch melting energy

There is not a clear standard for what is the actual minimum amount of enthalpy (thermodynamic energy requirement) that is needed to melt a certain soda lime (Container) glass batch.

Several batches were defined and HVG and Sibelco calculated the minimum melting energy using a thermodynamic method developed by Conradt and tuned by HVG and the thermodynamic model FactSage 7.0 (applied by Sibelco).

Based on first results, the differences between both models are of the order of magnitude of 5 to 10%.

4. Exchange of information

A Dropbox folder has been opened on which most past and new information are uploaded to be shared with all active participants

TC09 exchanged information on running projects and new initiatives to reduce energy consumption in the glass production process.

Hans van Limpt and Sven Kahl visited Glass Alliance Europe to explain the activity of TC09 to them.

A storyboard discussion to prepare the publication is planned for 2018.

5. Publications & Presentations

  • Draft publication of the Float Benchmark is in progress 


  • Organization of 1 or 2 meetings during 2018.  
    • First meeting will be held with core team during a special meeting focusing on CO2 reduction organized by Glasstrend 18-19 April Marktheidenfeld.
    • Full annual meeting is planned in Asia during ICG Conference 23-26 September in Yokohama
  • Finishing publication of energy benchmark project for float furnaces.
  • Execution of calculating minimum thermodynamic melting energy for more batches
  • Exchange of information on running projects and new initiatives to reduce energy consumption in the glass production process


Committee Members: back to top

Caputo, Alfeo
Dumankaya, Emre
Fasilow, Fabrice
Fleischmann, Bernhard
Hulme, Richard
Huuskes, Gustav
Itazu, Hiroyuki
Kahl, Sven
Keeley, Andrew
Kobayashi, Sho
Kuhn, Wolf
Laux, Stefan
Marostica, Andrea
Martin Garcia, Olga
Momo, Daisuke
Muijsenberg, Erik Committee Position: Secretary
Murthy, Valli
Ochoa, Diego
Roos, Christian
Schmidbauer, Wolfgang (Dr)
Sperry, Elmer
Tiozzo, Simone
van Herten, Roel (ir)
Van Limpt, Hans Committee Position: Chair
Verheijen, Oscar
Yoshida, Noriyuki

Committee Contact Details: back to top

TC09: Energy Efficiency
Application Development manager / Technical Sales Glass
De Zate 1
BE-2480 Dessel

Tel: +32 14 83 72 36

Email TC09: Energy Efficiency Using The Form Below.


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