TC07: Crystallisation & GCs

The strategy of TC07 is based on the following topics: -new properties and new applications of multi-component glass-ceramics; -fundamental studies of the kinetics mechanisms of nucleation and overall crystallization (e.g. surface versus internal crystallization).

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Mission statement

To understand from both theoretical and experimental points of view the fundamental aspects that govern crystal nucleation and growth in glasses; and to foster collaboration between academic, governmental, and industrial researchers to develop, characterize, and optimize existing and novel glass-ceramics and their processing with focus on multi-component systems.

Activities 2018

Definition of glass-ceramics updated

Glass-ceramics are noted for their unusual combination of properties and manifold commercialized products for consumer and specialized markets. Evolution of novel glass and ceramic processing routes, a plethora of new compositions, and unique exotic nano- and microstructures over the past 60 years led us to review the definition of glass-ceramics. Well-established and emerging processing methods, such as co-firing, additive manufacturing, and laser patterning are analyzed concerning the core requirements of processing glass-ceramics and the performance of the final products. In this communication, we propose a revised, updated definition of glass-ceramics, which reads

“Glass-ceramics are inorganic, non-metallic materials prepared by controlled crystallization of glasses via different processing methods. They contain at least one type of functional crystalline phase and a residual glass. The volume fraction crystallized may vary from ppm to almost 100%”.

Schematic description of the conversion of a glass into a glass-ceramic. The critical cooling rate is qc = (TL – TN) / δt with TL = liquidus temperature, and TN = “nose temperature” (= temperature at which the time δt to achieve a crystal fraction of 10−6 is shortest). Glass formation by melt-quenching takes place for q ≥ qc. “Uncontrolled” spontaneous crystallization occurs for q < qc. The glass-ceramic A is obtained during cooling, whereas glass-ceramics B and C are converted by single and double-stage heat-treatments, respectively.


Get the full article here.


Teaching glass-ceramics

TC07 members lectured on "Controlled crystallization of glasses – from transformation kinetics to glass-ceramics" at the 10th ICG Summer School in Montpellier.

Main ideas of the course were included in the book  "Teaching glass better" published by ICG in 2018. The chapter on crystallization and GCs aims in sketching the theory of nucleation and crystal growth and sheds light on the variety of experimental methods to determine kinetically relevant parameters. Classical techniques to measure nucleation and growth rates using double-stage heat treatments and image analysis are introduced and flanked by advanced calorimetric methods and high temperature X-ray diffractometry. The requirements of a controlled crystallization process for glass-ceramics manufacturing are the prime focus of the chapter and the common strategy in industry of splitting the nucleation and functionality tasks between two or more phases is highlighted for two types of glass-ceramic products.

From the chapter

"Tammann rate curves are the representation of the temperature dependence of the steady state nucleation rate I0 and the size independent growth rate U0 in a common diagram. Besides homogeneous nucleation (HOM), a nucleation rate curve for each type of external active site has to be considered (HET1, HET2, etc.). Depending on the chemical system under consideration U0 and I0 curves are more or less overlapping. The liquid-to-crystal transformation proceeds steadily in the temperature range of the overlap of both rate curves."

Tammann rate curve representations: (a) small (top) vs. large (bottom) overlap; (b) plus heterogeneous nucleation at external sites. Shaded area indicates overlap range.


Get the full book here.

Activities 2017

Participants in front of the auditorium

12th International Symposium on Crystallization in Glasses and Liquids (2017)

The 12th International Symposium on Crystallization in Glasses and Liquids (Crystallization 2017) was celebrated in the historic city of Segovia, Spain. The conference chairs were M.J. Pascual and A. Durán. The home page of the event is still available here. The conference venue was the Auditorium in the Parador de Segovia. The Spanish Society of Ceramics and Glass (SECV) had the pleasure and honour to host this conference, which is the twelfth in a series. Previous versions have been held in

Nagaoka, Japan 2015 (T. Komatsu, A. Sakamoto)
Goslar, Germany 2012 (J. Deubener)
Iguaçu Falls, Brazil 2009 (E.D. Zanotto)
Jackson Hole, Wyoming U.S.A. 2006 (M.J. Davis)
Sheffield, England 2003 (P.F. James)
Vaduz, Liechtenstein 2000 (W. Höland)
Florianopólis, Brazil 1996 (E.D. Zanotto)

Over the years, these bi- or triennial meetings have established a strong international reputation for disseminating the state-of-the-art in crystallization research, from fundamental aspects to innovative glass-ceramic products. The Segovia meeting covered the areas of simulation and theory, formation, structure, properties, and applications of crystallized glasses presented in 57 lectures (including 11 invited talks) and 76 posters. In particular,  participants from nineteen different countries found excellent opportunities for facilitating discussion on:

Fundamental approaches to nucleation and crystal growth (the interplay of theory, modelling and experiment)
Experimental studies (compositional and structural influences)
Advanced methods, techniques and characterization tools (in-situ, real time)
Role of nucleation agents (halogens, rare-earth and transition-metal oxides, noble metals)
Properties of glass-ceramics (thermal, mechanical, electrical, optical, chemical)
Microstructure/property relationships in glass-ceramics (strength, transparency, chemical resistance)
Novel processing techniques (laser sintering, sol-gel, field-induced nucleation…)
Commercial and new glass-ceramic applications (appliances, armour, bio-medical, dental, optical, seals)
Crystallization phenomena in related materials (metallic glasses, polymer glasses, natural glasses)

The invited paper were given by:

C. Rüssel, Otto Schott Institute, Jena University (Germany)
J.W. P. Schmelzer, Rostock University (Germany)
A.S. Abyzov, NSC Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (Ukraine)
W. Höland, Ivoclar Vivadent AG (Liechtenstein)
Q. Jianrong, Zhejiang University (China)
H. Jain, Lehigh University (USA)
F. Serbena, UEPG (Brazil)
C. Siligardi, DIEF, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia (Italy)
T. Honma, Nagaoka University of Technology (Japan)
M. Allix, CEMHTI laboratory (France)
A. de Pablos-Martín, IMWS, Halle (Germany)

Two oral presentations and four posters presentations were awarded with a certificate and a gift (100 €) to presenters below 40 years old. The oral awards went to Susanne Krüger from Clausthal University (Germany) for her presentation “How to take into account the stochastic nature of nucleation in constructing a time-temperature-transformation diagram?” and Mariona Tarragó from Barcelona University (Spain) for her presentation “Simulation of vitrification of sewage sludge using a Ca-doped basalt”. The four posters awards went to Mikiya Kotava (Japan), Carsten Blaess (Germany), Tina Waurischk (Germany) and Laura Briese (Germany).

Awardees S. Krüger (centre-left) and M. Tarragó (centre-right) with the conference chairs M.J. Pascual (right) and A. Durán (left)

The excursion led through the Royal Glass Factory of La Granja National Centre of Glass and La Granja Gardens.
The Symposium was supported by:

Fundación Centro Nacional del Vidrio (FCNV, La Granja)
Erich Netzsch GmbH & Co. Holding KG
Segovia Convention Bureau



Topical issues edited by TC07

TC07 aims in publishing jointly research activities in electronic and print media.  The list shows finalized special issues on crystallization and GCs (guest editors are indicated in brackets).

Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, Volume 501, 2018 (M.J Pascual, A Durán)
"Nucleation and Crystallization of Glasses and Glass-Ceramics" Frontiers Media SA, 2017 (W. Höland, J. Deubener)
MRS Bulletin, Volume 42, Issue 3, 2017 (M.J. Davis, E.D. Zanotto)
Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, Volume 384, 2014 (J. Deubener)
Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, Volume 356, Issues 52-54, 2010 (V.R. Mastelaro, M.J. Davis, E.D. Zanotto)
Am. Ceram. Soc., CD-ROM 2009, ISBN 978-0-470-09732-8 (M.J. Davis)
Phys. Chem. Glasses 45, 2004 and Glass Technol. 45, 2004  (P.F. James)
Glastech. Ber. Glass Sci. Technol. 73 C1, 2000 (W. Höland)
Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, Volume 219, 1997 (E.D. Zanotto)


TC07 group

From left to right: Wolfram Höland,  María Jesús Pascual,  Signo Nakane, Joachim Deubener, Tsuyoshi Honma, Edgar Zanotto, Mark Davis, Ina Mitra, Shifeng Zhou, Ralf Müller, Takayuki Komatsu, Philippe Pradeau and Markus Rampf (Foto taken at the  Parador de Segovia, 2017).



Committee Members: back to top

Cormier, Laurent
Davis, Mark Committee Position: Chair
Deubener, Joachim
Fokin, Vladimir
Hill, Robert
Holand, Wolfram Committee Position: Vice Chair
Honma, Tsuyoshi
Komatsu, Taka
Mitra, Ina
Müller, Ralf Committee Position: Vice Chair
Nakane, Shingo
Pascual, Maria
Pradeau, Philippe
Prado, Miguel
Rampf, Markus
Zanotto, Edgar
Zhou, Shifeng

Committee Contact Details: back to top

TC07: Crystallisation & GCs
Schott North America

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