TC10: Optical Properties


TC10 has recently changed its name to “Optical Properties and Characterization”, most of its activities being based around different optical measurements of glass and coated glass products. However, it retains a sub-group to study basic optical properties.


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Summary of the activities of TC10 in 2017

TC10 held 2 meetings in 2017. The first one happed in Venice, Italy on April 28th, the second one in Rosenheim, Germany on October 20th.

Characterization of diffusing glazing

The main concern in 2017 (and will continue in 2018) of the TC10 is about characterization of diffusing glass product. This include frit glass, enamel, coated enamel or frit, translucent PVB, pattern glass, etched glass or combination of these products. Different projects are running around this subject.

As this subject is becoming more and more important in the glass industry business, a task group was created in the NFRC committee which is called “diffuse glazing task force”. The idea is to include recommendation in the standard to measure diffusing products. Jacob Jonsson is the convenor and Helen Rose Wilson is a member of this task force, (both being member of TC10 also) gave us the progress made in that group. Some members of TC10 participated also to the RRT organized by the NFRC task group in order to define a correct method to measure the sample.

 It was shown that once the aperture size reaches 100 mm, light collection is stable and does not significantly increase by using larger apertures. Different configurations were tested on classical 150mm diameter sphere. The best configuration is when using a large beam size and a small aperture. Large spheres were also investigated. The reference being the 630mm sphere from Fraunhofer. A 270 mm sphere was designed by OMT solutions. It was compared with the reference. The study showed that some differences exist between both spheres. Larger steps were observed with the 270 mm sphere from OMT Solutions delivered to some labs. The problems are related to how the detectors see not only the sample but also the reference beam. Adding a diffusor at the reference sphere entrance port was a solution at least for some samples, but not all. Recommendations for the change of grating and detector were done. This lead to a redesign of the 270mm sphere. The upgraded version shown a good agreement between the Fraunhofer/LBNL pgll goniophotometer and Fraunhofer 630 mm sphere. Those results were obtained thanks to 2 RRT inside TC10 and in parallel with NFRC task group. The first included translucent laminated glass, the second one ceramic frit white, grey and black.

In parallel, Uppsala university is working in the development of a new method for 150mm sphere called pull back method. The history of this approach was presented. A round robin test was organized a few years ago which is used by Uppsala.  The principle of the diffusor method is to reduce the change in geometrical distribution of the light transmitted in the 100% measurement and by a light-scattering sample by introducing a diffuser. The diffuser should be strongly scattering over the entire spectrum, thin, have high transmittance and low reflectance. The pull-back method can be used to determine whether a diffuser is suitable for this purpose. However quantitative criteria need to be introduced.

The IR properties of those products are also difficult to collect. OMT solutions explained how emissometer measurements are done in their lab. The accuracy was showed to be around 1-2%. A comparison of the reflectance of glass only compared to fritted glass was shown. There was a decrease in signal in the fritted measurement for both the emissometer and FTIR, but the difference was small. However, the difference between coating and coated frit were much larger, with a 1-2% decrease in signal for the emissometer, and a huge 20% decrease for the FTIR. These results are a warning that large errors can occur when measuring the IR properties of rough samples

OMT solutions also presented new IR reflectance accessory for EN12898 emissivity measurement. VW reflectance principle was implemented.

A summary of the ASTM/NFRC/EN standers for emissivity were detailed. Information about the possibilities of the different labs were distributed.

Solar shading charaterisation

A presentation was given for Tnn (normal-normal transmittance) determination of solar shading devices and textile materials. BRDF technique was presented. Two hypotheses were proposed. The conclusion was that Tnn determination depends on the ratio between the area of the transmittance exit port to the internal area of the sphere and the use of the pullback method to determine if the sample is deemed ‘critical’. This methodology could also be applied to patterned glazing.

Laminate calculation exercise

The final result of a round robin test on how to calculate laminate glass properties based on component properties and based on annex B of EN410 were presented. There was a very good agreement for the first laminate. The second and third ones presented 3 differences noticeable. This presentation was the conclusion of this exercise. However, it was mentioned that a matrix method rather than the annex B equation might be preferred. It is requested to members participating to TC129 WG9 meeting to mention the opportunity to add the matrix method to the standard.

RRT EN410/EN12898

A round robin test for EN410 / EN12898 was initiated motivated by the need for round robin by EU Notified Bodies and laboratories accredited according to ISO17025. 25 sets of results were submitted by 21 laboratories (TC10 members and others) in 13 countries. An initial set of results was presented in April and additional information and data were communicated in October. The standard deviation for visible transmittance was observed to increase when the absolute value was lower. The standard deviation for emissivity increase when emissivity decreases. Apart from a few obvious outliers, there is good agreement.

It was also reported a request from CEN TC129/WG9 concerning a validation procedure for calculation procedure e.g. according to EN410 since the WIS program does not correspond anymore to current version of EN410 and EN673. It was suggested to draw on the previous ICG-TC10 round robin test for the procedure and criteria to define conformity.

RRT low iron glass

A RRT test was carried on transmittance of low iron glass. This interim analysis concentrates on the results at individual wavelengths used for redox calculations. Feedback from 8 members were received and compared to measurement by a metrological institure (PTB) in 2009.However, lower value were obtained than PTB. We suspect that this may be due to sample degradation as they were not kept in a controlled environment. Especially at 300 nm.

Planned activities for 2018:

Two meetings are planned for 2018. The first one will be in Murano (Italy) on April 27th and the second one will be in Mons (Belgium) on October 26th.

TC10 will continue to focus on diffusing product. Especially, we will focus on finding commercial product to apply the pullback method and to find the quantitative criteria for the diffuser. We still continue to follow the revision of standards but also to work proactively to produce input for new standards or revision of standard like certification of modeling tools, EN410, NFRC 300 series,…

We will produce the final report on angular round robin test and write the conclusion of the two last round robin test on low iron transmittance and measurement according to EN410 and EN673.

A general overview of the different methods to measure emissivity will be produced.

The TC website, that has been recently upgraded, will also be updated.

Activities and planned actions 2017

ACTIONS

TC10 continued investigations into the measurements of scattering and patterned glass products. They introduced a diffuser that allowed a significant reduction in the divergence of their measurements. A report on variable angle transmission and reflection measurements was written. Finally, a calculation inter-laboratory comparison was achieved on standard EN410 and EN673 that showed that almost all participants had correctly integrated the new rules.

The subgroup continued investigations on the modeling of colouring ions in glass and the effect of the tin layer of float glass on the optical properties. A study on solarisation effects was started.

There were two meeting held in 2013 both for the entire TC and the subgroup.

PLANNING

Planning is as follows:

  • Verification of a predictive algorithm for variable angle transmission based on the RRT.
  • Redaction of the method and criteria for scattering and patterned glass products measurements.
  • Publication of results for the inter-laboratory comparison on variable angle measurements.
  • Collection and analysis of the results of a calculation inter-laboratory comparison for complex glazing.

Activities 2016

2 meetings were organised in March in Venice and in September in Lanthom. 

1. Patterned and light scattering glass

TC10 is interested in understanding the behaviour of pattern and light scattering glass. Indeed those glass with a diffused component are hard to caracterised correctly. 

In our previous studies, we have underlighted a new method of measuring those glasses. It includes using a diffusor during the calibration phase as well during the sample measurement. However the diffusor must have some specific characteristic that have been difined previously like : having a high light transmission, be thin and same level of diffusion for all wavelengths. We have thus develop a method called "pull back" method to validate the diffusor. This method was described and send to all participants so each of us was eable to try it. The results will be presented in 2017.

Laminated glass calculation according to EN410

The annex B of standard EN410 (informative) explains the calculations needed for creating simulation of laminates. As the method is not simple, it was decided to check wether the information of the standard can be used in laboratories and exploit in simulations. A set of data was sent to participant so that everybody is using the same raw data. Base on those raw data, participants must create and simulate 3 different laminates with coating and evaluating the optical properties. 

5 labs were able  up to now to send results. It appears quite complex to realise but new participants would like to test. Among the 5 results received,  there is a good agreement for the simple laminate. But discrepancies are observed when the laminates become more complexe. Additionnal analysis will be done in 2017 to find possible origin of the differences. 

3. Complex glazing performences

Complex glazing is defined as any combination of a window glazing unit with a solar protection device, e.g. a shade, roller blind, shutter, Venetian blind etc. with respect to the glazing unit, the solar protection device may be located externally, internally or between the panes of the glazing unit (mid-pane).

The calculation intercomparison builds upon the ICG TC10 2013/14 comparison of the technical values for unshaded glazing units on the basis of spectral data undertaken to ensure competence in essential calculation procedures following the updating and re-issuing of the European Norms EN 410 and EN 673.

Calculations may be performed by the participants using European Norms and/or International Standard procedures and algorithms from in-house developed methods or nationally or internationally recognized window design tools, e.g. EN 13363-1, EN 13363-2, ISO 15099, WIS (Window Information Systems), WINDOW 7, .Parasol etc.

The objective of this round robin test  is to

  • compare calculated values of key technical values obtained by individual participants using common calculation procedures.
  • Compare the differences in key complex glazing performance parameters found using (i) different international standard calculation procedures (where possible to include simplified and detailed calculation methods) and (ii) different respective calculation tools.
  • Evaluate the suitability and/or limitations of the data file formats employed to characterize shading product and complex glazing performance.
  • Identify where possible measures to be considered to promote increased harmonization of calculation methods and procedures and improve the quality of the calculations.

Only 5 laboratories were able to present complete or partial results. There is a good agreement on light transmission except for venetian blinds at 45°. However U and solar factor show wide variation. 

New results are expected in 2017. The project will be closed then. It is considered as interesting but too complex and people maybe notready now forsuch complex calculation. 

 

RRT on emissivity

Certified body laboratories are required to participate to round robin test at regular frequencies. We took the opportunity to include ICG TC10 to the round robin test organised by INISMA. 2016 was the time of the organisation of the RRT. 6 samples were prepared, among them raw glass and coated glass, single, double and triple silver coatings. Samples were distrituted to 26 laboratories with instructions and workbook. The collection of results (transmission, reflexion and emissivity properties) will happen in 2017.

 

 

 

 

Committee Members: back to top

Akmaz, Fehiman
Aldrich, Scott
Anderson, Charles
Behrends, Andrea (Guest)
Bolles, Michael (Guest)
Bretschneider, Joachim
Chen, Gourong
Daneo, Antonio
Dotsenko, Alexander
Efimov, Andrei M.
Farmer, James
Feldmeier, Franz (guest)
Freinberger, Michael (Guest)
Gagliardi, Giovanni
Goussarov, Andrei
Gurianov, A
Hofmann, Thomas
Hutchins, Michael G
Jager, Klaus (guest)
Jonsson, Jacob
Kappertz, Olivier
Kermel, Christine
Kilbey, Neva (Guest)
Kinoshita, Taito
L'Heureux, Didier (Guest)
Marenne, Ingrid Committee Position: Chair
Mika, Martin
Niemantsverdriet, Keesjan (Guest)
Nilsson, Annica
Olive, François
Ottermann, Clemens
Roos, Arne
Rossi, Giuseppe
Sartenaer, Yannick (guest)
Schultz, Marcus (guest)
Sigetosi, Hirasima
Stemmler, Ivo
Timmermans, Serge (Guest)
van Nijnatten, Peter
Veiga, Pilar
Weis, Hansjoerg (Guest)
Wilson, Helen Rose
Wuelfken, Jan (guest)
Zhang, Long

Committee Contact Details: back to top

TC10: Optical Properties

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